Capital Allowances

Expenditure incurred:Annual limit £

1 January 2016 to 31 December 2018

200,000

From 1 January 2019

1,000,000

Plant and Machinery - Annual Investment Allowance (AIA)

The AIA gives a 100% write-off on most types of plant and machinery costs, including integral features and long life assets but not cars, of up to £200,000 p.a. for expenditure incurred on or after 1 January 2016. The previous rate was £500,000 p.a. Special rules apply to accounting periods straddling this date.

Any costs over the AIA fall into the normal capital allowance pools below. The AIA may need to be shared between certain businesses under common ownership.

Other Plant and Machinery Allowances

The annual rate of allowance is 18%. An 8% rate applies to expenditure incurred on integral features and on long-life assets.

A 100% first year allowance may be available on certain energy efficient plant and cars, including expenditure incurred on new and unused zero emission goods vehicles.

Cars

For expenditure incurred on cars, costs are generally allocated to one of the two plant and machinery pools. Cars with CO2 emissions not exceeding 130gm/km receive an 18% allowance p.a. Cars with CO2 emissions over 130gm/km receive an 8% allowance p.a.

Entrepreneurs’ Relief

The first £10m of qualifying gains are charged at 10%. Gains in excess of the limit are charged at the rates detailed above.

Car, Van and Fuel Benefits

Company cars 2018/19

CO2 emissions (gm/km)
(round down to nearest 5gm/km for values above 95)
% of car's list price taxed

0-50*

16

51-75*

19

76-94*

22

95

23

10024
10525
11026
11527
12028
12529
13030
13531
14032
14533
15034
15535
16036
165 and above37

CAR, VAN AND FUEL BENEFITS

  • The car benefit is calculated by multiplying the car's list price, when new, by a percentage linked to the car's CO2 emissions.

  • For diesel cars add a 4% supplement (unless the car is registered on or after 1 September 2017 and meets the Euro 6d emissions standard) but the maximum is still 37%.

  • The list price includes accessories.

  • The list price is reduced for capital contributions made by the employee up to £5,000.

  • Special rules may apply to cars provided for disabled employees.

  • For cars registered before 1 January 1998 and cars with no agreed CO2 emissions the charge is based on engine size.

*Rounding down to the nearest 5gm/km does not apply.

Car Fuel Benefit 2019/20

£24,100 x ‘appropriate percentage’ *

*Percentage used to calculate the taxable benefit of the car for which the fuel is provided.

The charge does not apply to certain environmentally friendly cars.

The charge is proportionately reduced if provision of private fuel ceases part way through the year. The fuel benefit is reduced to nil only if the employee pays for all private fuel.

Van Benefit per Vehicle 2019/20

Van benefit £3,430

Fuel benefit £655

The charges do not apply to vans if a 'restricted private use condition' is met throughout the year.

A reduced charge may be due if the van cannot in any circumstances emit CO2 by being driven.

Child Benefit

Rates - 2019/20£ per Week

Eldest/Only Child

£20.70

Other Children

£13.70

Corporation Tax

Year to 31.3.20

Profits Band £Rate %

All Profits

19

Year to 31.3.19

Profits Band £Rate %

All Profits

19

Year to 31.3.18

Profits Band £Rate %

All Profits

19*

*The profits limits are reduced for accounting periods of less than 12 months and for a company with associated companies.

Different rates apply for ring-fenced (broadly oil industry) profit.

Income Tax Rates

2019/2020

Profits Band £Rate %

0 - 5,000

0

0- 33,50020
33,501 - 150,0040
Over 150,0045

2018/19

Profits Band £Rate %

0 - 5,000

0*

0- 33,50020**
33,501 - 150,0040***
Over 150,0045****

2017/2018

Profits Band £Rate %

0 - 5,000

0*

0- 33,50020**
33,501 - 150,0040***
Over 150,0045****

*Only applicable to savings income. The rate is not available if taxable non-savings income exceeds £5,000. For 2016/17, £1,000 of savings income for basic rate taxpayers (£500 for higher rate) may be tax-free.

** Except dividends (7.5%).

*** Except dividends (32.5%).

**** Except dividends (38.1%).

Other income taxed first, then savings income and finally dividends. For 2016/17 the first £5,000 of dividends are tax-free.

Income Tax Reliefs

Personal Allowance

Born after 5th April 1938

2019/2020 - £12,500

2018/2019 - £11,850**

2017/2018 - £11,500**

Born before 6th April 1938*

2018/2019 - £11,850

2017/2018 - £11,500**

2016/2017 - £10,660*

(Reduce personal allowance by £1 for every £2 of adjusted net income over £100,000.)

**£1,060 may be transferable between certain spouses where neither pay tax above the basic rate

Married Couple's Allowance (relief at 10%)*

2019/2020 - £1,250

2018/2019 - £1,185

2017/2018 - £1,150

(Either partner 75 or over and born before 6 April 1935.)

Maximum Reduction in Tax Bill

2019/2020 - £891.50

2018/2019 - £869.50

2017/2018 - £844.50

Minimum Amount

2019/2020 - £345.00

2018/2019 - £N/A

2017/2018 - £N/A

*Age Allowance Income Limit

2019/2020 - £29,600

2018/2019 - £28,900

2017/2018 - £28,000

(Reduce age allowance by £1 for every £2 of adjusted net income above this limit.)

Blind Person’s Allowance

2019/2020 - £2,450

2018/2019 - £2,390

2017/2018 - £2,320

New Individual Savings Accounts (NISAS)

Overall Investment Limit

2018/2019 - £20,000

2018/2019 - £20,000

Junior Account Limit

2019/2020 - £4,368

2018/2019 - £4,260

Help to Buy ISA Monthly Subscription limit (Initial deposit limit £1000)

2019/2020 - £200

2018/2019 - £200

Lifetime ISA Annual Investment Limit

2019/2020 - £4,000

2018/2019 - £4,000

Inheritance Tax

Death Rate

Lifetime Rate

Chargeable Transfers 2019/20 & 2018/19

Nil

Nil

0 - £325,000*

40%20%Over £325,000

*Potentially increased for surviving spouses or civil partners who die on or after 9 October 2007 *Death rate if sufficient charitable legacies made 36%.

Reliefs

Annual Exemption - £3,000 

Small Gifts - £250 

Marriage 

- Parent - £5,000 

- Grandparent - £2,500

- Bride/Groom - £2,500

- Other - £1,000

Reduced charge on gifts within seven years of death

Years before death

% of death charge

0-3

100
3-480
4-560
5-640
6-720

Statutory Pay Rates

Weekly Benefit

Basic Retirement Pension - 
Single Person:
2018/19 - £125.95
2017/18 - £122.30
2016/17 - £19.30

Married Couple: 
2018/19 - £201.45
2017/18 - 195.60
2016/17 - £190.80

New State Pension
2018/19 - £164.35
2017/18 - £159.55
2016/17 - £155.65

Statutory Pay Rates - Average Weekly
Earnings £116 (£112) or over

Statutory Sick Pay

2019/20 - £94.25

2018/19 - £92.05

2017/18 - £89.35

Statutory Maternity Pay

First six weeks (90% of weekly earnings)

Next 33 weeks

2019/20 - £148.68*
2018/19 - £145.18*
2017/18 - £140.98*

Statutory Paternity Pay - two weeks

2019/20 - £148.68*

2018/19 - £145.18*

2017/18 - £140.98*

Statutory Adoption Pay - 39 weeks

* Or 90% of weekly earnings if lower.

Mileage Allowance Payments

2019/20 & 2018/19

Cars and Vans

Rate per Mile

Up to 10,000 miles

45p
Over 10,000 miles25p
Bicycles20p
Motorcycles24p

These rates represent the maximum tax-free mileage allowances for employees using their own vehicles for business. Any excess is taxable. If the employee receives less than the statutory rate, tax relief can be claimed on the difference.

National Insurance 

2019/20 and Class 1 (Employed) Rates

Employee

Earnings per week

%

Up to £166

Nil*
£166.01 - £96212
Over £9622

Employer**

Earnings per week

%

Up to £166

Nil*
Over £16613.8**

*Entitlement to contribution-based benefits retained for earnings between £116 and £162 per week.

**The rate is 0% for employees under 21 and apprentices under 25 on earnings up to £962.

Class 1A (employers) - 13.8% on employee taxable benefits

Class 1B (employers) - 13.8% on PAYE Settlement Agreements

Class 2 (self-employed) - flat rate per week £3.00 - small profits threshold £6,365 p.a.

Class 3 (voluntary) - flat rate per week £15.00

Class 4 (self-employed) - 9% on profits between £8,632.01 and £50,000 plus 2% on profits over £50,000.

Pension Premiums

2019/20 and 2018/19

Tax relief available for personal contributions: higher of £3,600 (gross) or 100% of relevant earnings. Any contributions in excess of £40,000, whether personal or by the employer, may be subject to income tax on the individual.

The limit may be reduced to £4,000 once money purchase pensions are accessed.

Where the £40,000 limit is not fully used it may be possible to carry the unused amount forward for three years.

Employers will obtain tax relief on employer contributions if they are paid and made 'wholly and exclusively'. Tax relief for large contributions may be spread over several years.

Employer's staging date to 5 April 2019


Employer minimum contribution

Total minimum contribution

Employer's staging date to 5 April 2019

1%2%
6 April 2018 to 5 April 20192%5%
6 April 2019 onwards3%8%

2019/20

Automatic Enrolment Earnings Trigger

£10,000
Qualifying earnings band - lower limit£6,136
Qualifying earnings band - upper limit£50,000

Land and Buildings Transaction Tax

Land and Buildings in Scotland

Rate**

Residential

0%

up to 145,00
2%145,000 - 250,000
5%250,001 - 325,000
10%325,001 - 750,000
12%Over 750,001 and above

Rate**

Non-Residential

0%

up to 150,000
1%150,001 - 250,000
5%Over 250,000

The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band in respect of transactions with an effective date on or after 1 April 2015.

**Rates may be increased by 3% where further residential properties costing £40,000 or over are acquired on or after 1 April 2016

Stamp Duty and Stamp Duty Land Tax

Land and Buildings in England, Wales, and N. Ireland

Rate**

Residential

0%

0 - 180,000
3.5%180,001 - 250,000
5%250,001 - 400,000
7.5%400,001 - 750,000
10%750,001 - 1,500,000
12%1,500,000 and above

Rate**

Non-Residential

0%

0 - 150,000
1%150,001 - 250,000
5%250,001 - 1,000,000
6%Over 1,000,000

*Payable on consideration which falls in each bracket.

**Payable on total consideration once limit is breached.

***Rates may be increased by 3% where further residential properties costing £40,000 or over are acquired on or after 1 April 2016. 

From 22 November 2017 first time buyers may be eligible for first time buyer relief on purchases of residential property up to £500,000. The rates apply to the portion of the total value which falls within each band.

SDLT is charged at 15% on interests in residential dwellings costing more than £500,000 purchased by certain non-natural persons.

Shares and securities - rate 0.5%.

Tax Reliefs for Individuals

2019/20 and 2018/19

Enterprise Investment Scheme (EIS)

Relief on investments in certain unquoted trading companies up to £1m p.a.:

  • Income tax relief at 30%.
  • Exempt CGT treatment on disposal if held for 3 years.

Unlimited amounts of capital gains from the disposal of other assets may be able to be deferred by making an EIS investment.

Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme (SEIS)

Relief on investments in certain unquoted trading companies up to £100,000 p.a.:

  • Income tax relief at 50%.
  • Exempt CGT treatment on disposal if held for 3 years.

Capital gains from the disposal of other assets may be exempt up to £50,000 p.a. by making an SEIS investment.

Venture Capital Trusts (VCTs)

Relief on investments in certain quoted companies up to £200,000 p.a.:

  • Income tax relief at 30%.
  • Dividend income exempt
  • Exempt CGT treatment on disposal if held for 3 years.

Dividends received from VCTs may be exempt from income tax.

Social Investment Relief (SIR)

Relief on investments in certain social enterprises (including charities)up to £1m p.a.:

  • Income tax relief at 30%.
  • Exempt CGT treatment on disposal if held for 3 years.

Capital gains from the disposal of other assets may be able to be deferred by making an SIR investment up to £1m p.a.

(All relief is subject to detailed conditions being met.)

Value Added Tax

Standard rate - 20%

Reduced rate - 5%

Annual Registration Limit - from 1.4.19 (1.4.19 - 31.3.20 £85,000) - £85,000

Annual Deregistration Limit - from 1.4.19 (1.4.19 - 31.3.20 £83,000) - £83,000

Disclaimer

This publication is published for the information of clients. It provides only an overview of the regulations in force at the date of publication and no action should be taken without consulting the detailed legislation or seeking professional advice. Therefore no responsibility for loss occasioned by any person acting or refraining from action as a result of the material contained in this publication can be accepted by the authors or the firm.

Contact us, in Ossett, West Yorkshire, to find out more about our tax rates.

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